BRIC-2011 A Measure of Success

BRIC-2012 FPGA for Control and Safety

NEI June 2012 Focus on Russia

Standards and Standardization: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Kharchenko V., Kovalenko A., Andrashov A. Standards and Standardization: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications.(Volume 3. Chapter 61. Security of Safety Important I&C Systems.) Information Resources Management Association (USA). – Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States of America. IGI Global, 2015. 1675 p.


One of the most challenging modern problems–security assessment and assurance for safety important I&C systems – is discussed. Interrelations and hierarchical structure of I&C systems attributes, including safety and security, are considered. Review of existing regulatory documents that covers various development and operation aspects of safety important I&C systems is presented. Such a review also addresses issues related to requirements for safety important I&C systems, including security requirements, depending on their underlying technology, as well as reveals the impact of the main features, including used technologies and development approaches. Main challenging problems and requirements in the area of security assurance for complex safety important I&C systems are outlined. A possible way to analyze the security vulnerabilities of safety important I&C system is considered; it is based on process-product approach, and it requires performance of assessments for products (components of I&C system at different life cycle stages) and all the processes within the product life cycle. A possible approach to assessment and assurance of safety important I&C systems security is discussed. Such an approach takes into account possible vulnerabilities of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) technology and appropriate points of their insertion into the life cycle. An analysis of existing techniques for assurance of safety important I&C systems security is performed.

Toward automated FMEDA for complex electronic product

E. Babeshko, V. Kharchenko, O. Odarushchenko, V. Sklyar. Toward automated FMEDA for complex electronic product // Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies (IDT 2015). – Zilina, Slovakia. – July 7-9, 2015. – P. 22-27.


Failure Modes, Effects, and Diagnostic Analysis (FMEDA) is a popular technique for evaluation of reliability and safety of a given product. This paper discusses possible challenges in application of FMEDA and related analysis techniques to complex electronic products like FPGA-based platforms. Ways of tool support to make FMEDA automated are addressed.

Resilience Assurance for Software-Based Space Systems with Online Patching

V. Kharchenko et al. Resilience Assurance for Software-Based Space Systems with Online Patching: Two Cases. Dependability Engineering and Complex Systems / Seria "Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing", Vol.470. W. Zamojski et al (edits), Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016. – Pp. 267-278.


Assurance of cyber security for I&C systems important to safety

Brezhniev E., Kovalenko А., Illiashenko О. Assurance of cyber security for I&C systems important to safety: process approach based on quality management system. Proceeding of 10th International Conference “DEpendable Systems, SERvices and Technologies” (DESSERT 2016). – Kiev, Ukraine. – May 18-23, 2016. – P. 21.


Security of any product is directly related to its development environment security, as well as assured by the product inherent properties and development processes. The approach of development of cyber-secured applications via creating and implementation of cyber security (CS) assurance process in a company is described in paper. CS assurance process is considered as an important business process in a company, the inputs are represented by company’s resources, and output is a secured product, which satisfies the customer. An example of such environment establishment is considered in the scope of special NQA QMS. NQA QMS is a complex consisting of methods and tools intended for controlling the main processes, which have an impact on security of the final product (application).

FMEDA-based NPP I&C Systems Safety Assessment

Babeshko E., Yasko A., Kharchenko V. FMEDA-based NPP I&C Systems Safety Assessment: Toward To Minimization Of Experts' Decisions Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 2016 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE24), Volume 5, June 26-30, 2016, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, Paper ID: ICONE24-60377.


Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are exceedingly complicated electronic solutions that include thousands of different components such as microcontrollers, Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), integrated circuits etc. Deployment of such safety-critical systems cannot be performed without complex safety and reliability assessment, verification and validation (V&V) activities that are addressed to exposing of overlooked faults. The examples of such activities are Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Injection Testing (FIT). Due to complexity of NPP I&C systems in most cases the process of assessment is very time consuming and the results mostly depend on experts’ qualification. Traditional safety and reliability assessment methods are being constantly modified and enhanced so as to comply with increasing demands of national and international standards and guidance, as well as to be applied for I&C systems that contain number of complex components like FPGA. Although much work related to analysis of FPGA-based systems has been performed, there is a lack of detailed technique for FPGA-based I&C systems failure identification that considers probability of several faults at the same time (multi-faults), development of preventive strategies for controlling or reducing of the risk related to such failures, as well as automation of this technique so as to make it utilizable for real NPP industry tasks. FIT as verification for FMEDA was used during SIL3 certification process of RadICS NPP I&C platform, while the parts of proposed technique were used as internal verification and validation activities applied on several modules of the platform.

Reliability assessment of FPGA-based NPP I&C: experience, methods and tools

Babeshko E., Kharchenko V., Siora A. Reliability assessment of FPGA-based NPP I&C: experience, methods and tools / E. Babeshko, V. Kharchenko, A. Siora // Радіоелектронні і комп’ютерні системи. - 2016. - № 5. - С. 113–119


Reliability assessment of instrumentation and control systems (I&Cs) is always one of the most important design and operation activities, especially for critical domains like nuclear power plants (NPPs). Intensive use of relatively new technologies like field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in I&C which appear in upgrades and in newly built NPPs makes task to develop and validate advanced reliability assessment methods that consider specific technology features very topical. Increased integration densities make the reliability of integrated circuits the most crucial point in modern NPP I&C. Moreover, FPGAs differ in some significant ways from other integrated circuits: they are shipped as blanks and are very dependent on design configured into them. Therefore, special approaches should be used for comprehensive analysis of FPGAs. This paper summarizes our experience on reliability analysis of FPGA based NPP I&C produced by Research and production corporation Radiy (RPC Radiy). Both analytical and operational reliability analyses are covered.

University-Industry Cooperation in Cyber Security Domain

Vyacheslav Kharchenko, Vladimir Sklyar, Eugene Brezhnev, Artem Boyarchuk, Oleksii Starov, Chris Phillips. University-Industry Cooperation in Cyber Security Domain: Multi-Model Approach, Tools and Cases // Proceedings of the International Conference on University Industry Interaction (UII 2016). – Amsterdam, Netherland. – June 2-4, 2016. – P. 22-27.


The role of information (cyber) security is increasing in all public and an industrial domain enforces Research and Development (R&D) in this area. It becomes an important area in University-Industry Cooperation (UIC). The paper is targeted to learn lessons and study special features of UIC provided for cyber security domain. The actual research is based on experience learned mainly from activities in the EU projects, in particular, TEMPUS SEREIN (Modernization of Postgraduate Studies on Security and Resilience for Human and Industry Related Domains, 543968-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-EE-TEMPUS-JPCP),

A paper is organized as a case study collection. Firstly, we analyze opportunities to organize hackathons for cyber security features development. Two different kinds of hackathons have been organized with SEREIN Project participants. The first kind is a student hackathon targeted to learning cyber security features of embedded systems based on microcontrollers and Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGAs). The second type of hackathon has been organized at the site of Research & Production Company Radiy with support of academicians. The goal of this industrial hackathon is to provide a valuable solution to increase cyber defense of FPGA-based safety controller RadICS.

The next type of activity is establishment of student start-ups to provide consultancy service for industrial clients. The third type of activity is joint R&D targeted to design of special programmable tool for investigation of cyber security features of Programmable Logic Controllers. This Security Controller is designed with two parts architecture. The first part is an Arduino family board which serves as a motherboard with performing functions of electrical parameters measurement as well as data transmission via USB-interface to a Personal Computer (PC). The second part is the specially designed Security Controller board with a target device (microcontroller unit or FPGA). This device is used as a connected shield for Arduino. A programmable component is programmed with a target code and its electrical parameters can be measured by Arduino.

Some tuning of traditional UIC tools and method for cyber security domain can be done based on the above experience.

Diversity for Safety and Security of Embedded and Cyber Physical Systems

Kharchenko V. Diversity for Safety and Security of Embedded and Cyber Physical Systems: Fundamentals Review and Industrial Cases. In Proceeding of 15Tth Biennial Baltic Electronics Conference (BEC 2016). Tallinn, Estonia. – 9 p.


Fundamentals of diversity and multi-version systems (MVS) are overviewed. Main concepts and taxonomy of multi-version computing, methods of diversity assessment and technologies of development are analyzed. Principle D3 (Defense-in-Depth&Diversity) is researched using FTA (failure tree analysis) to understand its influence on safety and security considering physical, design faults and attacks on vulnerabilities of hardware, software, FPGA components and system configuration. Several industrial cases related to application of diversity in NPP I&Cs, aviation control systems, post-accident monitoring system and service-oriented architectures to improve safety and security are analyzed.

Reliability and survivability models of integrated drone-based systems for post emergency monitoring of NPPs

Kharchenko, V., Sachenko, A., Kochan, V., & Fesenko, H. (2016). Reliability and survivability models of integrated drone-based systems for post emergency monitoring of NPPs. In Proceeding of The International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies 2016 (IDT 2016). Rzeszov, Poland. – 10p.


This paper presents the approach to research integrated drone-based systems for post emergency monitoring of NPPs as systems with a multi-level degradation. Reliability block diagrams of the systems are built. Degradation levels, conditions which determine them and formulae for calculating the reliability functions of the systems on these levels are proposed. The possibility of using developed models for research systems with a multi-level degradation and using drones are shown.

Critical (Cyber) Computing: Challenges and Cases for Industry and Human Domains

Kharchenko, V. (2016). Critical (Cyber) Computing:  Challenges and Cases for Industry and Human Domains. In Proceeding of The International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies 2016 (IDT 2016). Rzeszov, Poland. – 12p.


Challenges in area of safety and security critical systems application are discussed. Fundamentals of critical computing are observed considering development and implementation of software, FPGA and other (web, cloud, IoT) technologies for industry (nuclear power stations, aerospace, automotive systems, etc) human (health systems, smart building, etc) domains. Methods, techniques and tools to assess reliability, availability and safety of such systems are analysed. Aspects of cyber safety and cyber security are discussed as well. One of the techniques applied for safety assessment (verification and validation, V&V) of software and FPGA-based systems is (X,Z)-injection testing IT (X is type of faults and vulnerabilities, Z is component of systems). Fault injection testing (X is physical/design fault, Z is hardware/software component) is used as a tool-based technique during independent V&V in safety important NPP Instrumentation and Control systems (I&Cs). This technique is a mandatory to certify platforms and I&Cs against requirements of the standard IEC 61508 “Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-related Systems” according with safety integrity level (SIL). FIT is based on design fault injection into the code (VHDL code for FPGA, C code for embedded software, web components, etc), physical faults into programmable chips and HW modules to assess test coverage and fault-tolerance for redundant systems. VIT (vulnerability injection testing) is applied to assess intrusion-tolerance and (cyber) security. Experience of development and implementation of injection-based techniques for NPP I&C is discussed. The developed technique and tool have been applied to verify modules of FPGA-based platform RadICS (RPC Radiy, Kirovograd, Ukraine) during SIL3 certification. To assure safety and security diversity approach is applied. This approach is analysed in point of view regulation, assessment and assuring aspects. Industry/commercial application of multi-version systems is discussed. Diversity related requirements of standards for nuclear and automotive systems are compared. Techniques of diversity metric calculation and decision making for version redundancy selection are analysed.

Approaches to Selection of Combinatorial Algorithm for Optimization in Network Traffic Control of Safety-Critical Systems

Kuchuk G., Kharchenko V., Kovalenko А., Ruchkov E. Approaches to Selection of Combinatorial Algorithm for Optimization in Network Traffic Control of Safety-Critical Systems. Proceeding of IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS’2016). – Yerevan, Armenia. – October 14-17, 2016. – Pp. 384-389.


Traffic control in modern computer networks, including those within critical infrastructures (e.g. Nuclear Power Plants), implies various optimization problems solving by switching/routing devices in real time. Some of such problems include, for example, choosing of optimal route, distribution of data packets during multiway routing, redistribution of both service and user data, efficient changing of virtual configuration in network segment containing a bottleneck, which, in turn, appeared due to fault or failure of some physical links.
In a majority of cases, input data in such problems have a discrete character (for example, traffic samples, statistical estimations, etc.); hence, it is inevitable to use algorithms of discrete optimization.
Combinatorial algorithms for finding the solution in discrete optimization problem, applied to switching/routing nodes of critical infrastructures’ networks, are considered. Conditions for selection of algorithm type, depending on nature of the problem, are determined. Implicit enumeration algorithms on lacing and tree, as well as algorithms of dynamic programming method are analyzed in details.

Green IT Engineering

Green IT Engineering: Concepts, Models, Complex Systems Architectures. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control series. Kharchenko, V., Kondratenko, Y., Kacprzyk, J. (Eds.). Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2017. 305 p. (

This volume provides a comprehensive state of the art overview of a series of advanced trends and concepts that have recently been proposed in the area of green information technologies engineering as well as of design and development methodologies for models and complex systems architectures and their intelligent components. The contributions included in the volume have their roots in the authors’ presentations, and vivid discussions that have followed the presentations, at a series of workshop and seminars held within the international TEMPUS-project GreenCo project in United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, Sweden and the Ukraine, during 2013-2015 and at the 1st - 5th Workshops on Green and Safe Computing (GreenSCom) held in Russia, Slovakia and the Ukraine. The book presents a systematic exposition of research on principles, models, components and complex systems  and a description of industry- and society-oriented aspects of the green IT engineering. A chapter-oriented structure has been adopted for this book following a “vertical view” of the green IT, from hardware (CPU and FPGA) and software components to complex industrial systems.


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